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The Influence of Tone and Affrication on Manner: Some Irregular Manner Correspondences in the Tamang Group
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Remark: Article by Martine Mazaudon. Abstract: I have shown earlier (1978) that in the process of reinterpretation of the old voicing contrast in Proto-TGTM [Tamang-Gurung-Thakali-Manangba] in terms of phonation and tone, the final phonetic output of the merged series of initials sometimes varied according to the proto-tone. Thus the protovoiced series of proto-TGTM developed into an aspirated series in Manang under one of the two proto-tones, while it developed into a voiceless unaspirate series under the other proto-tone, as it did under both tones in all the other TGTM languages. Other sporadic influences of the proto-tone on the development of manner can be seen in the evolution of the old voiceless lateral *lhh in Tukche Thakali. In Gurung, voicing is not phonemic in the stock of native words, but it is redundantly transcribed in Glover's Dictionary. An analysis of these notations shows a double conditioning of the manner of the initial by tone and affrication. *Voiced stops have become voiceless under proto-tone *I, but have retained their voicing under proto-tone *II, unless they were followed by a medial (glide or affrication). This secondary conditioning factor leads us to an examination of the role of proto-clusters in the development of affrication and/or aspiration. In most cases this development has occurred after the tonal split, and the new aspirates have not interfered with the tonal classification of the old initial (whether *voiced or *voiceless). On the other hand, we might want to invoke a similar evolution from **voiced cluster to *aspirate occurring before the tonal split to explain a few apparent shifts from the low class of initials to the high class.