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Ingush is spoken by about 230.000 people. Most speakers live in the Ingush Republic and the Chechen Republic as well as in adjacent administrative entities in southern Russia.

Ingush and Chechen, together with Bats, constitute the Nakh branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family.

The self-designation of the speakers is Ghalghay.

Ingush became a written language with an Arabic based writing system at the beginning of the 20th century. After the October revolution it first used a Latin alphabet which was later replaced by Cyrillic letters.

The sound system of Ingush is characterised by a rich consonant inventory and a complex vowel system (28 vowel phonemes) with diphtongs.

Ingush has a considerable amount of cases and six noun classes. 'Ablaut' (i.e. substitution of the stem vowel) is used to form the stem of the oblique cases. The case system is ergative. The plural stem of nouns often differs significantly from the singular stem.

The numbers are vigesimal.

The verbal morphology, however, is rather simple. Ingush verbs inflect for tense and aspect. Verbs do not agree in person. Sometimes there is number agreement or gender agreement with the intransitive subject or the transitive direct object.

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