Dargwa is spoken by more than 370.000 people. The vast majority of the speakers live in the mountainous south of the Dagestan Republic in southern Russia. The rest live scattered in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
Dargwa belongs to the the Northeast Caucasian language family.
The dialects are Cudaxar, Akusha, Uraxa-Axusha, Kajtak, Kubachi, Dejbuk, Xarbuk, Muirin, and Sirxin.
Dargwa is one of the 14 official state languages of the Dagestan Republic in Russia. It is written with Cyrillic letters.
Dargwa became a written language with an Arabic based writing system at the beginning of the 20th century. After the October revolution it first used a Latin alphabet which was later replaced by Cyrillic letters. The literary language is based on the Akusha dialect.
In some dialects there is an opposition between pharyngealised vowels and non-pharyngealised vowels.
The case system of Dargwa is very rich because of the great number of locative cases. The noun uses 'Ablaut' (i.e. substitution of the stem vowel) to form the plural stem. Dargwa has three noun classes. The morphology of the verb, however, is relatively simple. The verb agrees with the noun in number, person and class. The Dargwa verb can form an antipassive. It uses 'Ablaut' to express the imperfective aspect.
Dargwa is an ergative language.